Main Article Content
Background: Cardiovascular diseases continue to be a global public health burden among occupational groups like Police officers. Police officers play important roles to ensure law and order in countries. However, the nature of police work exposes them to violence and stress. Again, irregular food habits, irregular exercise, inadequate sleep, smoking and drinking are lifestyles which makes police officers prone to high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Aim: This study looked at the prevalence of CVD risk factors among police officers in Kumasi, Ghana.
Study Design: Cross- sectional.
Place and Duration of study: Ashanti Regional Police Headquarters, Kumasi, Ghana, between September, 2017 to July, 2018.
Methodology: Weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120 officers were measured. Additionally, lifestyle and dietary factors such as exercise and intake of fruits of Police officers were assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22.0.
Results: Slightly more than half (63, 52.5%) of the officers were females and the remaining (57,47.5%) were males. The mean of the various CVD risk factors among the total study participants are as follows; BMI 28.184±4.461 kg/m2, waist circumference 92.702±10.941 cm, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 128.121±17.047 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 85.569±10.854 mmHg, fasting blood sugar 5.387±1.756 mmol/l, high density lipoprotein (HDL) 1.546±0.211 mmol/l, low density lipoprotein 2.321±0.706 mmol/l (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) 4.362±0.906 mmol/L. Prevalence of obesity among male and female officers were 43.9% and 36.5% respectively. With regards to hypertension, policemen and women recorded 31.6% and 20.6% respectively and dyslipidemia among males and females were 43.9% and 85.7% respectively.
Conclusion: The officers were generally overweight, with over a quarter having hypertension and about two-thirds having dyslipidemia, making their risk for CVDs high. Further studies to elucidate the causes are required, routine medical screening and nutritional support are recommended.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 2005;112:2735–2752.
Zimmerman FH. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in law enforcement personnel: A comprehensive review. Cardiology Rev. 2012;20:159–66.
Reichard AA, Jackson LL. Occupational injuries among emergency responders. Am J Ind Med. 2010;53:1–11.
Marmar CR, McCaslin SE, Metzler TJ, Best S, Weiss DS, Fagan J. Predictors of posttraumatic stress in police and other first responders. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science. 2006;1071:1–18.
Plat MJ, Frings-Dresen MH, Sluiter JK. A systematic review of job-specific workers’ health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011; 84:839–57.
Violanti JM, Burchfiels CM, Andrew ME, Dorn J, Wactawski-Wende J. The buffalo cardio-metabolic occupational police stress (BCOPS) pilot study: Methods and participant characteristics. Annals of Epidemiology. 2006;2(16):148-156.
Wang Y, Wang QJ, The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among US adults according to the new joint national committee guidelines: New challenges of the old problem. Archives of internal medicine. 2004;164(19):2126-2134.
Expert panel on detection E. executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Jama. 2001;285(19):2486.
Organization WH. BMI classification; 2015.
Alasagherin MH, Clark MK, Ramey SL, Grueskin EF. Body mass index misclassification of obesity among community police officer. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses. 2011;11(59):469-475.
Dopsaj M, Vuković M. Prevalence of the body mass index (BMI) among the members of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Serbia: Pilot study. 2015;3:28-48.
Sharma AM, Engeli S, Pischon T. New developments in mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension: Role of adipose tissue. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2001;3:152-156.
Eghan BA. Prevalence and predictors of microalbuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: A cross–sectional observational study in Kumasi, Ghana; 2007.
Gharg B. Association of low physical activity with metabolic syndrome in law enforcement officers (Unpublished thesis). Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine, Portland, U.S.A; 2013. (In press).
Jackevicius CA, Tu JV, Ko DT, de Leon N, Krumholz HM. Use of niacin in the United States and Canada. JAMA International Medicine. 2013;173:1379–1381.
Tewksbury R, Copenhaver A. State police officer sleep patterns and fast food consumption. International Journal of Police Science & Management. 2015; 17(4):230–236
Wilcox S, Sharpe PA, Turner-McGrievy G, Granner M, Baruth M. Frequency of consumption at fast food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Nutrition Research. 2013; 33:636–646.
Prout P. Lifestyle behaviors and cardio-metabolic risk among police officers in Trinidad and Tobago, (Unpublished thesis). The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; 2014. Available:http://hdl.handle.net/2139/41898
Nakanishi N, Takatorige T, Suzuki K. Cigarette smoking and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese male office workers. Ind Health. 2005;43:295–301.